Autoimmune Hepatitis

What is Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH)? As the name states it, Autoimmune Hepatitis is an autoimmune liver inflammation.  The constant inflammation leads to scarring and can ultimately lead to cirrhosis. There are two main types of autoimmune hepatitis. Type 1 is the most common and can occur at any age. This type is very common in […]

Renal Artery Stenosis

What is Renal Artery Stenosis? Renal artery stenosis is a narrowing of the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidneys. Since less blood is reaching the kidneys the body misinterprets that as the body having low blood pressure and compensates by releasing hormones that increase the body’s blood pressure. Over time this cycle of […]

Solitary Thyroid Nodule

What is Solitary Thyroid Nodule? Thyroid nodules are very common, and most are incidental findings during routine physical or imaging. Thyroid nodules identified as an incidental finding on diagnostic imaging do not require further evaluation unless they are palpable, greater than 1 cm in size, or both. The clinical importance of thyroid nodules is to […]

Primary Biliary Cholangitis

What is Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC)? Primary Biliary Cholangitis, formerly known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is a chronic autoimmune disease where your body attacks the bile ducts in your liver. Bile ducts are responsible for carrying bile, needed for food digestion, from the liver to the small intestines. Since these ducts stop working, bile starts […]

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)? Benign prostatic hyperplasia is commonly referred to as BPH. BPH is a common disorder that occurs in the aging male. Over time the prostate continually grows and can become enlarged. An enlarged prostate can affect the flow of urine and the genitourinary organs such as the kidneys, bladder, and […]

Mitral Stenosis

What is Mitral Stenosis? Mitral stenosis is a valvular heart disease characterized by the narrowing of the mitral valve which causes movement of oxygenated blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle to be reduced. The mitral valve dysfunction eventually leads to blood backing up in the left atrium, in the blood vessels in the […]


What is Sialadenitis (Salivary gland infection)? This condition is characterized by enlargement and inflammation of the salivary glands. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotids, submandibular and sublingual. The parotid glands are located in front of the ears. The submandibular is just underneath the mandible and the sublingual glands are located under the […]

Id Reaction

What is an Id Reaction? An id reaction aka disseminated secondary eczema aka autoeczematisation is a generalized acute skin reaction to various stimuli, these include infectious and inflammatory conditions. The exact cause of an id reaction is unknown, but it has been proposed that it is an immune response involving circulating infectious agents known as […]

Diastolic Heart Failure

What is Diastolic Heart Failure? The inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to meet the body’s demands due to hypertrophy of the ventricular walls, leading to a reduced preload. The ventricles’ ability to stretch and fill is impaired however, the force of contraction is not affected which preserves or even increases the ejection […]

Lichen Planus

What is Lichen Planus? Lichen Planus is a chronic, inflammatory disorder. This can happen on your skin or inside your mouth. The causes of this condition are not completely known but some practitioners believe it can be due to Hepatitis C, adverse reaction to hypertensive, or malaria medications. It is also believed to be autoimmune, […]