Category Archives: Uncategorized


What is Lymphadenitis? Lymphadenitis can be defined as enlargement in one or more lymph nodes, usually due to infection. The body has approximately 600 lymph nodes that help fight infections but only a few names, the submandibular, axillary, or inguinal regions are normally palpable in healthy people. Although findings of enlarged lymph nodes often raise […]


What is Myocarditis? Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscles which decreases the ability of the heart to pump blood. It can be caused by either a viral or bacterial infection. Viral infections are the most common and it can include adenovirus, coxsackievirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, and chickenpox. Myocarditis can also be caused by […]


What is Thalassemia? Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin, an important part of the red blood cell is not made. As such there are fewer healthy red blood cells in the body and less oxygen in the blood. There are different types of thalassemia, called alpha and beta-thalassemia depending on which genes […]

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

What is Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH)? Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) is a condition in which the body makes an antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH helps regulate the kidney excretion of water through the urine to maintain homeostasis. Certain inappropriate conditions or medications can cause the overproduction of the ADH hormone […]


What is Pyelonephritis? Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys and it usually occurs when a urinary tract infection ascends to the kidneys. Pyelonephritis can be divided into complicated and uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Complicated diseases are seen in pregnant women, chronic kidney disease, uncontrolled diabetics, and patients with urinary anatomical abnormalities. The main risk factors for […]


What is Constipation? Constipation is defined differently between patient and physician. It is commonly defined as infrequent bowel movement associated with abdominal discomfort, bloating, straining during bowel movements, or the sensation of incomplete evacuation, usually fewer than three times a week. Constipation should not be defined based on the frequency alone because it differs from […]

Cushing’s Syndrome

What is Cushing’s Syndrome? Cushing’s syndrome occurs when there is an excess of cortisol hormone in the blood. Cortisol is also called the “stress hormone” since it helps the body respond to stress. Cortisol also helps to regulate blood glucose, reduce inflammation, and maintain blood pressure. Cortisol is creating in the adrenal glands, which are […]

Multiple Myeloma

What is Multiple Myeloma? Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells that leads to increased production. It is the most common primary bone malignancy in adults. Who is at increased risk for Multiple Myeloma? The elderly, African Americans, and males are all at increased risk for multiple myeloma. What are the signs and […]

Chronic Kidney Disease

What is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic/end-stage kidney disease is a progressive decline in the function of one’s kidneys. Essentially the kidneys can not filter blood in the way they should causing wastes that the kidneys normally would filter in the urine to build up in the body. This happens gradually over a long period of […]

Kidney Stones

What Are Kidney Stones? Kidney stones are a common problem in primary care and also a common cause of abdominal and flank pain in patients presenting to the emergency department. A kidney stone is formed when the body has too much of certain materials and these materials become concentrated in the urine.  Typically, the stone […]